Penny Bamber has been an independent contractor with the GVC Center since 2009. As a senior research analyst, her work has focused on economic development and competitiveness in Latin America and Africa, with a particular interest in the role of workforce development and gender in supporting industry upgrading. Key industries for her include agriculture, medical devices, and offshore services. She has led several projects related to improving national competitiveness in both high- and low-tech sectors for developing countries. Her publications include The Offshore Services Value Chain: Upgrading Trajectories in Developing Countries (International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 2011), Connecting Local Producers to Regional and Global Value Chains (OECD, 2013), Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender: The Horticulture Industry (World Bank, 2013), Costa Rica in the Medical Devices Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading (COMEX, 2013), and the Inclusion of Small and Medium Producers in High Value Agro Chains (Inter-American Development Bank, 2013). In addition, Penny has led trainings in the use and application of the GVC framework for industry representatives and policy makers in developing countries in both the Caribbean and Africa. Prior to joining the Duke GVC Center, Penny worked in the leadership development-training field, facilitating programs for business students and executives at the Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania.