A Study on APEC Cooperation for Digital Economic Utilization in GVC in the COVID-19 Era

This report investigates the digital transformation occurring within GVCs and describes the implications those changes carry for APEC cooperation. The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to accelerate the digital transformation and bolster the digital economy as work is underway to overcome this unprecedented crisis. Under these circumstances, understanding digital transformation within GVCs is critical to surmounting the COVID-19 crisis and preparing for a post-pandemic era.

From Jobs to Careers: Apparel Exports and Career Paths for Women in Developing Countries

It is well-established that bringing more women into the formal labor force is critical for economic development. One strategy often cited is further integrating developing countries into global trade, particularly global value chains (GVCs), to contribute to female labor market outcomes through the expansion of female-intensive industries. As a result, a big question frequently debated, is whether the apparel industry – which is the most female-intensive and globally engaged manufacturing industry – can be a key player in this regard. In recent decades, the apparel industry has shifted its production to low-wage developing countries, increasing the demand for women, closing male-female wage gaps, and bringing women into the formal labor force. Indeed, the benefits of apparel exports have reached the female population, but is an apparel-led export strategy sufficient to induce the transition from jobs to careers? This Report provides an answer by focusing on seven countries where the apparel industry plays an important role in its export basket – Bangladesh, Cambodia, Egypt, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and Vietnam. The Report’s key finding is that countries should take advantage of the apparel industry as a launching platform to overcome the fixed costs of introducing more women into the labor market. However, for this approach to work, there needs to be complementary policies that tackle the barriers that hinder women in their pursuit of long-term participation in the labor force and better-paid occupations. A hope is to shift the paradigm of how we think of women’s participation in the labor force by demonstrating the importance of the distinction between jobs and careers. Although aspirations towards careers are achieved in different ways, understanding how progress is being made in each country towards a more equitable life between men and women will pave the way for a better route forward.

COVID Disruptions to the Apparel Supply Chain: Focus on Bangladesh

As part of the DUCIGS/Rethinking Diplomacy series on COVID-19 and global supply chain, this session will focus on how disruptions to the apparel supply chain are affecting clothing manufacturers and the garment workers they employ. The focus of the talk will be Bangladesh, one of the world’s largest apparel exporters, and, since the Rana Plaza collapse of 2012, the site of far-reaching reforms designed to improve worker health and safety. Jennifer Bair will discuss developments since Rana Plaza, and the status of the industry on the eve of the COVID crisis. Mark Anner will present findings from a survey of manufacturers on the extent of supply chain disruptions, as well as efforts to secure some protection for suppliers and workers negatively affected by declining demand from global brands and retailers. Gary Gereffi will moderate the discussion.

This event is open to the public but registration is required. Please register at: https://bit.ly/2Xj0LI7
Date/Time: June 2, 2020: 12:30-1:45 PM EST

The Rise of Digital Companies and Strategies: Case Studies in the U.S. and Korea

This article is related to research conducted as part of the collaboration between KIET and GVCC. The article was published in the March/April 2019 KIET Industrial Economic Review, Volume 24, Issue Number 2, p. 14-21.

Pakistan in the Medical Device GVC

Duke GVCC’s study into Pakistan’s medical devices industry was sponsored by the World Bank.

Pakistan in the Apparel Global Value Chain

This Duke GVCC study on Pakistan’s apparel industry was sponsored by the World Bank in order to understand potential upgrading strategies to enhance the country’s competitiveness in the GVC. It begins by providing an overview of the apparel GVC to present a clear understanding of the scope of the industry, how markets are structured and how changing distribution of demand and supply destinations and lead firm organization alter structural dynamics in the chain. It then analyzes the industry within Pakistan, first detailing the country’s position in the chain by looking at its firm profile, backward linkages, product profile and end markets. The internal organization of the industry is then outlined as well as recent examples of upgrading and the factors that influence the labor environment. After assessing the country’s advantages and constraints, it provides short case studies on Vietnam and Sri Lanka’s experiences in the industry. The report concludes with potential upgrading strategies for the Pakistan in the industry.

Pakistan in the Offshore Services Global Value Chain

This report first provides an overview of the offshore services GVC to present a clear understanding of the scope of the industry, how markets are structured and how changing distribution of demand and supply destinations alter structural dynamics in the chain. It then analyzes the industry within Pakistan, detailing the country’s position in the global market as well as the internal organization of the industry and the human capital status. After assessing the advantages and constraints observed in Pakistan, it looks to India and Uruguay for comparative case studies, detailing the lessons learned for Pakistan. The report concludes by outlining potential upgrading strategies to enhance the country’s competitiveness in the global market. Across the entire report, focus is placed on the opportunities than Pakistan can leverage in the export market, excluding the domestic market space.

The Digital Economy, Global Value Chains and Asia

This joint report by the GVC Center and KIET builds on recommendations from the first project to explore opportunities in technology-related services. This report: describes and defines the digital economy, provides a case study that illustrates how Industry 4.0 impacts the capital equipment GVC and provides analysis of the activities taking place in different countries including the US, China, India, Singapore and Korea. To identify entry and upgrading opportunities in this field, 28 company case studies of global information technology (IT) lead firms were completed to identify common strategies of existing global leaders.

The Digital Economy & Global Value Chains: Implications for Korea

Presentation by Duke-GVCC in Seoul, Korea on December 4, 2018 at the KIET-Duke GVCC seminar on Upgrading Globalization for Innovation Growth: Expansion of Digital Companies in GVCs and its Implications. The presentation provides an overview of the results of our recent project KIET on the digital economy and GVCs.

Global Value Chains and International Development: Framework, Findings and Policies

Global Value Chains and International Development: Framework, Findings and Policies is a separate collection of GVC essays that have been published in Chinese.

The chapters are as follows:

1. Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer

Gary Gereffi and Karina Fernandez-Stark

2. The Global Economy: Organization, Governance, and Development

Gary Gereffi

3. The Governance of Global Value Chains

Gary Gereffi, John Humphrey, and Timothy Sturgeon

4. Development Models and Industrial Upgrading in China and Mexico

Gary Gereffi

5. Global Commodity Chains, Market Makers, and the Rise of Demand-Responsive Economies

Gary G. Hamilton and Gary Gereffi

6. Global Value Chains, Development, and Emerging Economies

Gary Gereffi

7. Risks and Opportunities of Participation in Global Value Chains

Gary Gereffi and Xubei Luo

8. Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Value Chains and Industrial Clusters: Why Governance Matters

Gary Gereffi and Joonkoo Lee

9. Global Value Chains in a post-Washington Consensus World

Gary Gereffi