This synthesis review identifies common drivers and constraints for OSH improvements in agricultural global supply chains. The findings provide information that can assist in developing effective strategies to improve OSH in agricultural global supply chains and to identify research gaps and potential for future research. The report is published by the ILO Vision Zero Fund.
The objective of this synthesis review is to establish OSH vulnerability profiles and identify the common drivers that could be leveraged and the constraints that should be addressed to improve OSH in garment factories. The findings provide information that could be used in developing effective strategies to improve OSH in global supply chains in the garment industry and to identify research gaps and potential for future research. The report is published by the ILO Vision Zero Fund.
The Duke GVC Center provides practical, real-world advice that informs decision-making related to workforce development, among other areas. Over the years, the Duke GVC Center’s research has shed light on questions such as:
These issues impact not only businesses, but also governments, industry associations, international organizations and educational institutions. Responding effectively to these challenges enables countries to be more competitive and companies to be more profitable.
IMPACT SUMMARY IN WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT
Since 2007, the Duke GVC Center has produced 85 reports across 31 countries. The research team has given 93 presentations, authored over 100 additional publications, and have led several training workshops. All of this output provides insights on workforce development in varying degrees. The entire Duke GVC Center research team has extensive experience in researching workforce development issues in various parts of the world.
CLIENT CASE STUDIES RELATED TO WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT
The Center has conducted in-depth research on workforce development for RTI International, OECD and the World Bank. The following is a snapshot of the ways the Duke GVC Center has generated impact for these clients.
Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries
Client: RTI International
Challenge: How can workforce development strategies enhance the upgrading efforts and competitiveness of developing countries in global industries? The goal of this research project was to provide insights to this question for policymakers, donors and development practitioners.
Approach & Outcome: To better understand the relationship between upgrading and workforce development, four dynamic global industries – fruit and vegetables, apparel, offshore services and tourism – were studied in 15 developing countries including Bangladesh, Chile, Costa Rica, Honduras, India, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Nicaragua, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Vietnam. The research was carried out in three main steps:
(1) Map the structure of each industry GVC in terms of its main activities, value adding stages, and firms;
(2) Identify and analyze the participation of individual developing countries in GVCs in order to show the main challenges at entry, middle and high levels of upgrading; and
(3) Analyze and compare the role of workforce development initiatives when a country upgrades.
Based on this research, the Duke GVC Center highlighted commonalities across industry case studies and stages of upgrading. The research team then recommended workforce development initiatives that would enhance economic and social upgrading.
Skills for Private Sector Development: Burundi in the Agribusiness, Coffee and Energy Global Value Chains
Client: World Bank
Challenge: Burundi has experienced several years of modest growth and improved political stability since the end of its major political conflict in the early 2000s. Agribusiness, coffee and electrical energy are three industries crucial to the country’s development. The goal for the Skills for Private Sector Development project was to identify specific strategies for upgrading within these industries. This would help Burundi promote its development, generate export earnings while expanding employment (particularly among youth) and raise incomes.
Approach & Outcome: The GVC framework examines the shifting organization of global and regional industries by analyzing the characteristics and dynamics of different firms and suppliers involved in these activities. The Duke GVC Center team used this framework to identify sector-specific opportunities for upgrading Burundi’s participation in each value chain.
The report, prepared by Dr. Gereffi, Penny Bamber and Karina Fernandez-Stark for the International Labour Organisation (ILO), uses a case-based approach to analyze circumstances under which both economic and social upgrading have been achieved simultaneously. The report is based on a desk-based review, drawing upon existing studies of GSCs to examine their impacts and implications for the development of domestic firms and workers, their contribution to productive transformation and structural change and their impacts on the quantity and quality of jobs in the LAC region.
The Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi’s economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies. Burundi faces high and growing demand for electrical energy. Political and economic instability over the last two decades, however, has undermined the development of the country’s energy sector. With very low installed capacity, Burundi faces significant challenges with respect to energy supplies in the country. 90% of the country’s energy needs are currently met by the burning of biomass, primarily wood, for cooking and heat contributing to deforestation and health care issues, and the lack of electrical energy supply constrains the development of the country in the long term. As the country continues to rebuild its economy following the end of the crisis, policy makers, donors and the private sector have expressed interest in bolstering the sector, both as a means to promote economic output and also to leverage the sector for improved labor productivity and job creation for the large number of unemployed youth in the country.
Agriculture is the central pillar of Burundi’s economy and employing virtually the entire rural workforce. This report examines the skills and workforce training needs across the different segments of the value chain to support Burundi’s upgrading in the agribusiness global value chains. With the consolidation of markets and stringent quality standards, producers in developing countries have commonly faced increasing pressure to invest in upgrading skills and knowledge of producers in export-oriented agribusiness value chains.
The Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi’s economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies.
‘This presentation was given at the SASE Annual Meeting in Milan, Italy on June 28, 2013. It was part of an ongoing research project between the Center for Nanotechnology in Society (CNS) at UC-Santa Barbara and Duke CGGC.